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Post-mortem analysis of photovoltaic modules that have degraded performance is essential for improving the long term durability of solar energy. This article focuses on a general procedure for analyzing a failed module. The procedure includes electrical characterization followed by thermal imaging such as forward bias, reverse bias, and lock-in, and emission imaging such as electroluminescence and photoluminescence imaging.

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G. B. Alers, Solar Photovoltaic Module Failure Analysis, Microelectronics Failure Analysis: Desk Reference, 7th ed., Edited By Tejinder Gandhi, ASM International, 2019, p 545–549,

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