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Scanning Probe Microscope (SPM) has an increasing important role in the development of nanoscale semiconductor technologies. This article presents a detailed discussion on various SPM techniques including Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Scanning Kelvin Probe Microscopy, Scanning Capacitance Microscopy, Scanning Spreading Resistance Microscopy, Conductive-AFM, Magnetic Force Microscopy, Scanning Surface Photo Voltage Microscopy, and Scanning Microwave Impedance Microscopy. An overview of each SPM technique is given along with examples of how each is used in the development of novel technologies, the monitoring of manufacturing processes, and the failure analysis of nanoscale semiconductor devices.

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Phil Kaszuba, Scanning Probe Microscopy for Nanoscale Semiconductor Device Analysis, Microelectronics Failure Analysis: Desk Reference, 7th ed., Edited By Tejinder Gandhi, ASM International, 2019, p 485–498,

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