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There are several analytical methods available that can be used in-line on whole wafers as well as off-line on de-processed products that are returned from the field. These techniques are surface analytical techniques that can be used to characterize the bulk of the material. The main six methods used in semiconductor industry are: Auger spectroscopy, dynamic secondary ion mass spectroscopy, time of flight static secondary ion mass spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), and transmission electron microscope-EDX. This review specifically addresses ToF-SIMS and describes some typical examples of the application of Auger and SEM-EDX.

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Vladimir Dmitrovic, Rama I. Hegde, Andrew J. Mawer, Rik J. Otte, D. Martin Knotter, Sven Kayser, Surface Analysis and Material Characterization Techniques Used in Semiconductor Industry to Identify and Prevent Failures, Microelectronics Failure Analysis: Desk Reference, 7th ed., Edited By Tejinder Gandhi, ASM International, 2019, p 447–460,

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