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This chapter provides a comprehensive overview over all phenomena related to Voltage Contrast (VC) mechanisms in SEM and FIB. The multiple advantages, possibilities, and limits of active and passive VC failure localization are systemized and discussed. The knowledge of all facts influencing the VC generation (capacitance, leakage, doping, and circuitry) is very helpful for successful failure localization.

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Ruediger Rosenkranz, Failure Localization with Active and Passive Voltage Contrast in FIB and SEM, Microelectronics Failure Analysis: Desk Reference, 7th ed., Edited By Tejinder Gandhi, ASM International, 2019, p 269–278,

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