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Laser Voltage Probing (LVP) is a key enabling technology that has matured into a well-established and essential analytical optical technique that is crucial for observing and evaluating internal circuit activity. This article begins by providing an overview on LVP history and LVP theory, providing information on electro-optical effects and free-carrier effects. It then focuses on commercially available continuous wave LVP systems. Alternative optoelectronic imaging and probing technologies for fault isolation, namely frequency mapping and laser voltage tracing, are also discussed. The subsequent section provides information on the use of Visible Laser Probing. The article closes with some common LVP observations/considerations and limitations and future work concerning LVP.

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Keith A. Serrels, Ulrike Ganesh, Laser Voltage Probing of Integrated Circuits: Implementation and Impact, Microelectronics Failure Analysis: Desk Reference, 7th ed., Edited By Tejinder Gandhi, ASM International, 2019, p 244–261,

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