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This article reviews the basic physics behind active photon injection for local photocurrent generation in silicon and thermal laser stimulation along with standard scanning optical microscopy failure analysis tools. The discussion includes several models for understanding the local thermal effects on metallic lines, junctions, and complete devices. The article also provides a description and case study examples of multiple photocurrent and thermal injection techniques. The photocurrent examples are based on Optical Beam-Induced Current and Light-Induced Voltage Alteration. The thermal stimulus examples are Optical Beam-Induced Resistance Change/Thermally-Induced Voltage Alteration and Seebeck Effect Imaging. Lastly, the article discusses the application of solid immersion lenses to improve spatial resolution.

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Felix Beaudoin, Edward Cole, Jr., Physics of Laser-Based Failure Analysis, Microelectronics Failure Analysis: Desk Reference, 7th ed., Edited By Tejinder Gandhi, ASM International, 2019, p 196–208,

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