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Magnetic field imaging (MFI), generally understood as mapping the magnetic field of a region or object of interest using magnetic sensors, has been used for fault isolation (FI) in microelectronic circuit failure analysis for almost two decades. Developments in 3D magnetic field analysis have proven the validity of using MFI for 3D FI and 3D current mapping. This article briefly discusses the fundamentals of the technique, paying special attention to critical capabilities like sensitivity and resolution, limitations of the standard technique, sensor requirements and, in particular, the solution to the 3D problem, along with examples of its application to real failures in devices.

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A. Orozco, Magnetic Field Imaging for Electrical Fault Isolation, Microelectronics Failure Analysis: Desk Reference, 7th ed., Edited By Tejinder Gandhi, ASM International, 2019, p 111–131,

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