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X-ray imaging systems have long played a critical role in failure analysis laboratories. This article begins by listing several favorable traits that make X-rays uniquely well suited for non-destructive evaluation and testing. It then provides information on X-ray equipment and X-ray microscopy and its application in failure analysis of integrated circuit (IC) packaging and IC boards. The final section is devoted to the discussion on nanoscale 3D X-ray microscopy and its applications.

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Christian Schmidt, X-Ray Imaging Tools for Electronic Device Failure Analysis, Microelectronics Failure Analysis: Desk Reference, 7th ed., Edited By Tejinder Gandhi, ASM International, 2019, p 62–66,

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