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A 10-cm (4-in.) chain link used in operating a large dragline bucket failed after several weeks in service. The link was made of cast low-alloy steel (similar to ASTM A487, class 10Q) that had been normalized, hardened, and tempered to give a yield strength of approximately 1034 MPa (150 ksi). A hydrogen flake approximately 5 cm (2 in.) in diam was observed at the center of the fracture surface. Beach marks indicative of fatigue encircled the hydrogen flake and covered nearly all of the remaining fracture surface. The failure of this linkways caused by an excessive hydrogen content. Two steps were taken to combat this type of failure. First, when service conditions did not require high hardness to combat wear, the links were produced of a steel having a yield strength of about 690 MPa (100 ksi) rather than 1034 M

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