Failure of a Steel Lifting Eye
A steel lifting eye, manufactured from grade 1144 steel, failed during service. The eye ring fractured in two places, adjacent to the threaded shank and diametrically opposite to this region. Woody overload features, typical for resulfurized steels were revealed by SEM. The directionality of the features was found to be suggestive of shear overload. It was observed that fracture preferentially followed the nonmetallic inclusions. The fracture was revealed to be parallel to the direction of the manganese sulfide stringer inclusions. The presence of significant banding of the ferrite and pearlite microstructure was revealed by etching. It was also observed that the fracture is primarily along the inclusions and through bands of ferrite. It was concluded that the lifting eye failed as a result of overload. Fracture occurred parallel to the rolling direction, through manganese-sulfide stringers and ferrite bands in the base metal matrix. The material used for this application was very anisotropic, exhibiting substantially poorer long and short transverse mechanical properties than longitudinal properties.