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Infrared (IR) spectroscopy is a useful technique for characterizing materials and providing information on the molecular structure, dynamics, and environment of a compound. This article provides the basic principles and instrumentation of IR spectroscopy. It discusses the sampling techniques of IR spectroscopy, namely, attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy, emission spectroscopy, and photoacoustic spectroscopy, and chromatographic techniques. Explaining the qualitative analysis of IR spectroscopy, the article provides information on spectral absorbance-subtraction, analysis of components in spectral matrix mixture, and determination of exact peak location of broad profiles. It discusses the quantitative analysis that mainly includes Beer's law for single compound in single wave number. The article also exemplifies the applications of IR spectroscopy.

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