Broken Structural Bolt
Two bolts from the stressed structure of a church building that had broken during stressing were examined to establish the cause of fracture. The fracture of one of the first bolt occurred in a double-vee groove weld whose root was not completely welded. The second bolt had cracked outside of the weld seam closely under the head. Neither one had been particularly deformed before fracture. The composition of the head pieces corresponded approximately to manganese steel (Material No. 1 0845), a weldable construction steel with increased yield point and strength, while the shafts were made from Cr-Mo steel (Material No. 1.7225) according to DIN 17200. It was found that the bolts were not made from a suitable alloy steel, but were welded together from two unsuitable steels, one of which lacked sufficient strength. The austenitic weld seams showed hot tears and were not welded through to the root. Also, the pieces were not preheated before welding, so that stress cracks occurred in the transition zones. The second bolt was overstressed during the impact caused by the breaking of the first bolt.
Friedrich Karl Naumann, Ferdinand Spies, Broken Structural Bolt, ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories: Buildings, Bridges, and Infrastructure, ASM International, 2019, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001204
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