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Solid-state transformations occurring in a weld are highly nonequilibrium in nature and differ distinctly from those experienced during casting, thermomechanical processing, and heat treatment. This article focuses on welding metallurgy of fusion welding of steels and highlights the fundamental principles that form the basis of many of the developments in steels and consumables for welding. Examples in the article are largely drawn from the well-known and relatively well-studied case of ferritic steel weldments to illustrate the special physical metallurgical considerations brought about by the weld thermal cycles and by the welding environment. The article provides information on welds in other alloy systems such as stainless steels and aluminum-base, nickel-base, and titanium-base alloys.

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