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This article provides information on the boundary conditions that must be applied to model the heat-transfer coefficient (HTC) in a component being cooled. It describes the historical perspective of various experiments to determine the HTCs. Computational fluid dynamics codes have also been used to predict the HTCs around a part. The article provides information on the various modeling studies used to predict cooling rates in a component. The prediction of residual stresses by validation and optimization of residual stress models is also discussed. Several techniques, such as models neglecting and incorporating material transformation effects, used to predict residual stresses are reviewed. The article also explains the various aspects of models used to prevent cracking during heating and quenching.

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