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Additive manufacturing (AM) is the process of joining materials to make parts from three-dimensional (3D) model data, usually layer upon layer, as opposed to subtractive manufacturing and formative manufacturing methodologies. This article discusses various defects in AM components, such as porosity, inclusions, cracking, and residual stress, that can be avoided by using vendor recommended process parameters and approved materials. It describes the development of process-structure-property-performance modeling. The article explains the practical considerations in nondestructive evaluation for additively manufactured metallic parts. It also examines nondestructive testing (NDT) inspection and characterization methods for each of the manufacturing stages in their natural order. The article provides information on various inspection techniques for completed AM manufactured parts. The various electromagnetic and eddy current techniques that can be used to detect changes to nearsurface geometric anomalies or other defects are also discussed. These include ultrasonic techniques, radiographic techniques, and neutron imaging.

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