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Electromagnetic signals at microwave and millimeter-wave frequencies are well suited for inspecting dielectric materials and composite structures in many critical applications. This article presents a partial list of reported nondestructive testing (NDT) application areas for microwaves. It discusses the advantages and limitations of inspection with microwaves. The article discusses the physical principles, including reflection and refraction, absorption and dispersion, scattering, and standing waves. It provides a discussion on terahertz (THz) imaging for nondestructive evaluation (NDE). The article concludes with information on ground-penetration radar (GPR) that uses electromagnetic radiation and detects the reflected signals from subsurface structures.

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