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The appearance, morphology, and extent of the casting skin are the consequence of mold-metal interface interaction. This article discusses the classification of the mold-metal interaction based on severity: mild mold-metal interaction and severe mold-metal interaction. The casting surface exhibits some roughness, which depends on the molding materials used in the casting process. The article describes the effects of the casting skin in spheroidal graphite (SG) and compact graphite (CG) irons, as well as the mechanism of casting skin formation. It discusses the physics of liquid metal penetration in sand molds and concludes with information on the effect of sand additives and mold coatings.

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