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Solidification processing is one of the oldest manufacturing processes, because it is the principal component of metal casting processing. This article discusses the fundamentals of solidification of cast iron. Undercooling is a basic condition required for solidification. The article describes various undercooling methods, including kinetic undercooling, thermal undercooling, constitutional undercooling, and pressure undercooling. For solidification to occur, nuclei must form in the liquid. The article discusses the various types of nucleation: homogeneous nucleation, heterogeneous nucleation, and dynamic nucleation. It reviews the classification of eutectics based on their growth mechanism: cooperative growth and divorced growth. The article concludes with a discussion on the solidification structures of peritectics.

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