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This article discusses classification of foundry processes based on the molding medium, such as sand molds, ceramic molds, and metallic molds. Sand molds can be briefly classified into two types: bonded sand molds, and unbonded sand molds. Bonded sand molds include green sand molds, dry sand molds, resin-bonded sand molds, and sodium silicate bonded sand. The article describes the casting processes that use these molds, including the no-bake process, cold box process, hot box process, the CO2 process, lost foam casting process and vacuum molding process. The casting processes that use ceramic molds include investment casting, and plaster casting. Metallic molds are used in permanent mold casting, die casting, semisolid casting, and centrifugal casting.

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