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Both surface finish and surface integrity must be defined, measured, and maintained within specified limits in the processing of any product. Surface texture is defined in terms of roughness, waviness, lay, and flaws. This article illustrates some of the designations of surface roughness and the symbols for defining lay and its direction. In addition, it describes the applications of surface integrity, typical surface integrity problems created in metal removal operations, and principal causes of surface alterations produced by machining processes. The article tabulates the effect of some machining methods on fatigue strength, and low-stress grinding procedures for steels, nickel-base...

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