Solidification is a comprehensive process of transformation of the melt of metals and alloys into a solid piece, involving formation of dendrites, segregation which involves change in composition, zone formation in final structure of the casting, and microporosity formation during shrinkage. This article describes the imperfections in the solidification process including porosity, inclusions, oxide films, secondary phases, hot tears, and metal penetration. It talks about the purpose of the gating system and the risering system in the casting process.
Thomas S. Piwonka, Solidification of Metals and Alloys, Metals Handbook Desk Edition, 2nd Ed., 2nd ed., Edited By Joseph R. Davis, ASM International, 1998, p 728–735, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003171
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