Titanium metal passes through three major steps during processing from ore to finished product: reduction of titanium ore to sponge (porous form), melting of sponge and scrap to form ingot, and remelting and casting into finished shape. This article describes primary fabrication, including all operations that convert ingot into general mill products, such as billet, bar, plate, sheet, strip, tube, and wire. The section on secondary fabrication describes processes such as die forging, extrusion, hot and cold forming, machining, chemical milling, and joining. The article presents a short note on powder metallurgy products of titanium. Casting processes and properties are covered in the final section.
Rodney R. Boyer, Processing of Titanium and Titanium Alloys, Metals Handbook Desk Edition, 2nd Ed., 2nd ed., Edited By Joseph R. Davis, ASM International, 1998, p 578–584, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003141
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