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The article provides an overview of the various types of testing machines: gear-driven or screw-driven machines and servohydraulic machines. It examines force application systems, force measurement, and strain measurement. The article discusses important instrument considerations and describes gripping techniques of test specimens. It analyzes test diagnostics and reviews the use of computers for gathering and reducing data. Emphasis is placed on universal testing machines with separate discussions of equipment factors for tensile testing and compressing testing. The influence of the machine stiffness on the test results is also described, along with a general assessment of test accuracy, precision, and repeatability of modern equipment.

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