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Chromate conversion coatings (CCCs) are primarily used to improve adhesion of subsequently applied organic coatings or to impart corrosion resistance during atmospheric exposure. This article describes the factors that affect the formation of CCCs. It provides information on the processing sequence, morphology, composition, and properties of CCCs. The article discusses the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy approach used for evaluating conversion coatings. The test methods for various CCCs properties are also reviewed. The article examines the various coatings associated with chromate-free conversion. These include: titanium and zirconium fluorocomplexes; cerium-base, manganese-base, cobalt-base, and molybdate-base conversion coatings; hydrotalcite coatings; and organic coatings.

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