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This article describes the formability and surface contamination of the refractory metals such as niobium, tantalum, molybdenum, tungsten, and titanium-zirconium-molybdenum alloys. It reviews the factors that affect mechanical properties and formability during rolling and heat treatment. The effect of temperature on the formability of refractory metals is discussed. The article provides a description of the forming methods of sheet and preformed blanks using refractory metals. It also discusses the types of lubricants, including oils, soaps, waxes, silicones, graphite, and molybdenum disulphide, used in the forming of refractory metals.

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