This article discusses the failure mechanism of springs. It describes the critical application factors that affect spring fatigue performance. These include: material type and strength; stress conditions; surface quality; manufacturing processes; rate of application of load; and embrittlement or cracking. The article summarizes the methods of statistical analysis of S-N data for general comparisons of fatigue strength of spring steels. The fatigue performance of springs is illustrated by Goodman diagrams. The article also exemplifies the examination of failed springs.
Mark Hayes, Fatigue of Springs, Fatigue and Fracture, Vol 19, ASM Handbook, By ASM Handbook Committee, ASM International, 1996, p 363–368, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002377
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