Coining is a closed-die forging operation in which all surfaces of the workpiece are confined or restrained, resulting in a well-defined imprint of the die on the workpiece. This article focuses on the coining equipment (hammers and presses), lubricants, and general and special die materials used in the coining process. It discusses the coinability of metals such as steels, copper, and composite metals. The article describes the control of dimensions, surface finishes, and weight of coined items. It concludes with a discussion on processing problems and solutions.
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