Cold extrusion is a push-through compressive forming process with the starting material (billet/slug) at room temperature. This article provides information on the different types of steels that can be cold extruded. Mechanical presses and hydraulic presses that are specifically designed for cold extrusion with high rigidity, accurate alignment, and long working strokes are described. The article details the factors that are critical in cold extrusion: punch design, die design, and tool design. It summarizes the role of lubricants during extrusion of steel, such as soap lubricant and polymer lubricants. The article describes several procedures for extruding specific steel parts such as tubular parts and stepped shafts. It lists problems such as tool breakage and galling or scoring of tools and explains cold extrusion of aluminum, copper, and nickel alloy parts. The article also discusses the impact extrusion of magnesium alloys.
Murali Bhupatiraju, Robert Greczanik, Cold Extrusion, Metalworking: Bulk Forming, Vol 14A, ASM Handbook, Edited By S.L. Semiatin, ASM International, 2005, p 405–418, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004005
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