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Solid-state transformations occurring in a weld are highly nonequilibrium in nature and differ distinctly from those experienced during casting, thermomechanical processing, and heat treatment. This article provides a description of the special factors affecting transformation behavior in a weldment. It reviews the heat-affected and fusion zones of single-pass and multi-pass weldments. The article also includes a discussion on the welds in alloy systems, such as stainless steels and aluminum-base, nickel-base, and titanium-base alloys.

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