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The International Committee of Foundry Technical Associations has identified seven basic categories of casting defects: metallic projections, cavities, discontinuities, defective surfaces, incomplete casting, incorrect dimension, and inclusions or structural anomalies. This article presents some of the common defects in each of the seven categories in a table. It also discusses select case studies relevant to inclusions, cavities (gas porosity, shrinkage), and discontinuities (hot tearing, cold shut).

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