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This article provides a general introduction on casting processes and design. It discusses the process steps and methods of the main categories of shape casting methods, namely, expendable molds with permanent patterns, expendable molds with expendable patterns, and metal or permanent mold processes. The article lists general guidelines of geometry in casting design. It describes the factors, such as mold complexity and casting solidification, in casting design. The solidification of a casting can involve as many as three separate contractions as a result of cooling: liquid-liquid contraction, solid-solid contraction, and liquid-solid contraction. The article discusses the factors influencing the solidification sequence of simple shapes, such as T-sections, X-sections, and L-sections. It also provides an overview of geometric factors that influence heat transfer and transport phenomena. The article concludes with a description of the structure and properties of a casting.

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