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This article discusses selected highlights of thermodynamic relationships during solidification and nucleation kinetics behavior in connection with the basis of nucleation treatments, such as grain refinement and inoculation, to provide a summary of nucleation phenomena during casting. Nucleation during solidification is a thermally activated process involving a fluctuational growth in the sizes of clusters of solids. The article describes nucleation phenomenon such as homogeneous nucleation and heterogeneous nucleation. It discusses various grain refinement models, such as carbide-boride model, free growth model, and constitutional undercooling model. The article concludes with a section on thermal analysis techniques for assessing grain-refining characteristics during master alloy processing.

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