When a heat of steel is melted and refined, it is necessary to solidify it into useful forms for further processing or final use. Ingot casting remains the preferred method for certain specialty, tool, forging, and remelted steels. This article discusses the methods, equipment, and theory for pouring, solidifying, and stripping steel ingots. It describes two basic types of pouring methods, top pouring and bottom pouring, and provides information on equipment such as hot tops, ingot molds, and stools. The design of the ingot is dictated by the application and type of steel involved. The article concludes with information on the applications of solidification simulation.
Donald J. Hurtuk, Steel Ingot Casting, Casting, Vol 15, ASM Handbook, Edited By Srinath Viswanathan, Diran Apelian, Raymond J. Donahue, Babu DasGupta, Michael Gywn, John L. Jorstad, Raymond W. Monroe, Mahi Sahoo, Thomas E. Prucha, Daniel Twarog, ASM International, 2008, p 911–917, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005295
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