Various powder production processes allow precise control of the chemical composition and physical characteristics of powders and allow tailoring of specific attributes for targeted applications. Metal powders are produced by either mechanical methods or chemical methods. The commonly used mechanical methods include water and gas atomization, milling, mechanical alloying, and electrolysis. Some chemical methods include reduction of oxides. This article provides information on the reliable techniques for powder characterization and testing to evaluate the chemical and physical properties of metal powders, both as individual particles and in bulk forms.
Chris Schade, Introduction to Metal Powder Production and Characterization, Powder Metallurgy, Vol 7, ASM Handbook, Edited By P. Samal, J. Newkirk, ASM International, 2015, p 55–57, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006086
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