Sintering is a thermal treatment process in which a powder or a porous material, already formed into the required shape, is converted into a useful article with the requisite microstructure. Sintering can be classified as solid-state, viscous, liquid-phase, and pressure-assisted (or pressure) sintering. This article provides information on the mechanisms and theoretical analysis of sintering and focuses on the types, mechanisms, process and microstructural variables, computer simulation, stages, and fundamentals of densification and grain growth of solid-state sintering and liquid-phase sintering. It describes the models for viscous sintering and the methods used in pressure-assisted sintering, namely, uniaxial hot pressing, hot isostatic pressing, sinter forging, and spark plasma sintering.
Mohamed N. Rahaman, Sintering Theory and Fundamentals, Powder Metallurgy, Vol 7, ASM Handbook, Edited By P. Samal, J. Newkirk, ASM International, 2015, p 205–236, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006117
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