Warm compaction uses both powder heating and die heating to effect higher component densities, whereas warm die compaction uses only die heating to achieve higher density. This article explains the influences of green and sintered properties and pore-free density during compaction of materials. It provides information on the concept of pore-free density and process considerations: die heating and powder heating. The article concludes with a review of the tooling design for warm compaction.
Francis Hanejko, Warm Compaction and Warm Die Compaction, Powder Metallurgy, Vol 7, ASM Handbook, Edited By P. Samal, J. Newkirk, ASM International, 2015, p 322–325, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006083
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