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This article provides an overview of common quenching media, the factors involved in the mechanism of quenching, and process variables, namely, surface condition, mass and section size of the workpiece, and flow rate of the quenching liquid. It describes the methods of quenchant characterization using hardening-power and cooling-power tests. The article discusses the fundamentals involved in heat-transfer coefficient and heat flux of quenching processes. This discussion is followed by various actual examples of applications of these methods using simplified equations. Quenchant evaluation, classification, selection, and maintenance are reviewed in detail. The article addresses the various reasons for quench oil variability and complications due to aging and contamination.

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