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Alloying, heat treating, and work hardening are widely used to control material properties, and though they take different approaches, they all focus on imperfections of one type or other. This chapter provides readers with essential background on these material imperfections and their relevance in design and manufacturing. It begins with a review of compositional impurities, the physical arrangement of atoms in solid solution, and the factors that determine maximum solubility. It then describes different types of structural imperfections, including point, line, and planar defects, and how they respond to applied stresses and strains. The chapter makes extensive use of...

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