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This chapter addresses the cumulative effects of fatigue and how to determine its impact on component lifetime and performance. It begins by defining a loading history and its corresponding hysteresis loops that exposes the deficiencies of some of the theories discussed. It then proceeds to demonstrate the methods commonly used to analyze cumulative fatigue damage and its effect on component life starting with the classical linear damage rule. After pointing out the inherent limitations of the model, it presents a method that incorporates two linear damage rules, one applying prior to crack initiation and the other after the crack has started. Although the method accounts somewhat better for loading-order effects, the transition in behavior that the rules presume to model occurs prior to any signs of cracking. Two modified versions of the double linear damage rule method, neither of which are related to a physical crack initiation event, are subsequently presented along with several applications showing how the different methods compare. The examples provided include two-level and multilevel tests, a gas-turbine engine compressor disk, and the cumulative damage associated with the irreversible hardening of type 304 stainless steel.

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