Structural steels with very high strength levels are often referred to as ultrahigh-strength steels. This article describes the commercial structural steels capable of a minimum yield strength of 1380 MPa (200 ksi). The ultrahigh-strength class of constructional steels includes several distinctly different families of steels. The article focuses on medium-carbon low-alloy steels, medium-alloy air-hardening steels, and high fracture toughness steels. The medium-carbon low-alloy family of ultrahigh-strength steels includes AISI/SAE 4130, the higher-strength 4140, and the deeper hardening, higher-strength 4340. Also from this family are descriptions for the 300M, D-6a and D-6ac, 6150, and 8640 steels. The medium-alloy air-hardening family of ultrahigh-strength steels includes H11 modified and H13 steels. The high fracture toughness family of ultrahigh-strength steels includes HP-9-4-30 steel and AF1410 steel. The article explains the mechanical properties and the heat treatments of the medium-carbon low-alloy steels, medium-alloy air-hardening steels, and high fracture toughness steels.
Thoni V. Philip, Thomas J. McCaffrey, Ultrahigh-Strength Steels, Properties and Selection: Irons, Steels, and High-Performance Alloys, Vol 1, ASM Handbook, By ASM Handbook Committee, ASM International, 1990, p 430–448, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001027
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