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This article discusses the bulk formability or workability of steels. It describes their formability characteristics and presents procedures for various formability tests used for carbon and alloy steels. Tests for bulk formability can be divided into two main categories: primary tests and specialized tests. The article compares the processing of microalloyed plate and bar products. The article focuses on the use of torsion testing to evaluate the forgeability of carbon and alloy steels and presents information on measuring flow stress. The article discusses the metallurgy and thermomechanical processing of high-strength low-alloy (microalloyed) steels and the various parts of the rolling operation. The article summarizes some of the common tests for determining formability in open-die and closed-die forgings.

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