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Porosity in aluminum is caused by the precipitation of hydrogen from liquid solution or by shrinkage during solidification, and more usually by a combination of these effects. Nonmetallic inclusions entrained before solidification influence porosity formation and mechanical properties. This chapter describes the causes and control of porosity and inclusions in aluminum castings as well as the combined effects of hydrogen, shrinkage, and inclusions on the properties of aluminum alloys. In addition, it discusses the applications of radiography to reveal internal discontinuities in aluminum.

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