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This chapter familiarizes readers with tempering and refrigeration treatments and their effect on case-carburized parts. It explains how tempering makes such parts easier to machine, more structurally and dimensionally stable, and more durable in certain applications. It identifies key process parameters and provides test data showing how they affect hardness, yield strength, bending and contact fatigue, and fracture toughness. It also addresses potential problems stemming from process-related factors such as the presence of hydrogen and the effects of aging and grinding. In regard to refrigeration, the chapter explains that it is not uncommon for subzero treatments to be included in the production of carburized parts whether as a standard procedure or optional step. Subzero cooling promotes the transformation of retained austenite to martensite, thereby increasing surface hardness and reducing the propensity of quenched carburized steels to burn and crack during surface grinding. The chapter includes numerous data plots and tables showing how the various treatments influence hardness, wear resistance, tensile properties, and fatigue and fracture behaviors.

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