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Gas carburizing is known to promote internal oxidation in steel which can adversely affect certain properties. This chapter discusses the root of the problem and its effect on component lifetime and performance. It explains that gas-carburizing atmospheres contain water vapor and carbon dioxide, providing oxygen that reacts with alloying elements, particularly manganese, chromium, and silicon. It examines the composition and distribution of oxides produced in different steels and assesses the resulting composition gradients. It describes how these changes influence the development of high-temperature transformation products as well as microstructure, hardenability, and carbon content and properties such as fatigue and fracture behaviors, hardness, and wear resistance. It also explains how to manage internal oxidation through material design, process control, and other measures.

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