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This chapter covers the emerging practice of quantitative microscopy and its application in the study of the microstructure of metals. It describes the methods used to quantify structural gradients, volume fraction, grain size and distribution, and other features of interest. It provides examples showing how the various features appear, how they are measured, and how the resulting data are converted into usable form. The chapter also discusses the quantification of fracture morphology and its correlation with material properties and behaviors.

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Quantitative Microscopy, Metallography: Principles and Practice, By George F. Vander Voort, ASM International, 1984, p 410–508,

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