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Hardness tests provide valuable information about the quality of materials and how they are likely to perform in different types of service. This chapter covers some of the most widely used hardness testing methods, including Vickers, Rockwell, and Brinell tests, Shore scleroscope and Equotip hardness tests, and microindentation tests. It describes the equipment and procedures used, discusses the factors that influence accuracy, and provides hardness conversion equations for different types of materials. It also explains how hardness testing sheds light on anisotropy, machinability, wear, fracture toughness, and tensile strength as well as temperature effects, residual stress, and quality control.

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