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This chapter discusses the tools and techniques of light microscopy and how they are used in the study of materials. It reviews the basic physics of light, the inner workings of light microscopes, and the relationship between resolution and depth of field. It explains the difference between amplitude and optical-phase features and how they are revealed using appropriate illumination methods. It compares images obtained using bright field and dark field illumination, polarized and cross-polarized light, and interference-contrast techniques. It also discusses the use of photometers, provides best practices and recommendations for photographing structures and features of interest, and describes the capabilities of hot-stage and hot-cell microscopes.

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Light Microscopy, Metallography: Principles and Practice, By George F. Vander Voort, ASM International, 1984, p 267–333,

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