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This chapter describes several macroscopic examination techniques, including macroetching, contact printing, fracturing, and lead exudation. It explains how each method is implemented, why it is used, and what it reveals about manufacturing processes, defects, imperfections, and failure mechanisms.

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Macrostructure, Metallography: Principles and Practice, By George F. Vander Voort, ASM International, 1984, p 1–59,

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