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This chapter describes the basic steps in the production of titanium ingots and their subsequent conversion to standards product forms. It explains how titanium ore is reduced to a spongy residue, then granularized, compacted, and melted (along with alloying additions) to form an ingot, which may be remelted several times to achieve the necessary properties. It also discusses the cause of defects and ingot imperfections and the benefits of billet reduction and grain-refinement processes.

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