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Abstract

This chapter discusses the equipment and processes used to convert titanium billet and bar into useful shapes or more refined product forms. These secondary working operations include open-die, closed-die, hot-die and isothermal forging as well as ring rolling and extruding. The chapter describes each method in detail and how it affects the microstructure and mechanical properties of various titanium alloys. It also discusses the propensity of titanium to react with oxygen and hydrogen when heated and explains how to mitigate the effects.

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